The legendary Achuar Indians of South America.
The Aboriginal Eternity.
++ In the ancient times, dreams were used for healing purposes and for communication with the Gods. It was used as a rite of passage in certain tribes where they would carry out spiritual activities in order to receive a guiding dream and then share it with the rest of the tribe after it was received. The ancient Greeks constructed temples they called Asklepieions, where sick people were sent to be cured. It was believed that cures would be effected through divine grace by incubating dreams within the confines of the temple. Dreams were also considered prophetic or omens of particular significance by most cultures.
__During the beginning of the 19th Century two influential psychiatrists Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud decided to take dreaming to the next level. Even though they had there own personal theories on what dreaming meant they both concluded that dreams where in fact an interaction between the unconscious and the conscious.
__Artemidorus of Daldis, who lived in the 2nd century AD, wrote a comprehensive text Oneirocritica (The Interpretation of Dreams). Although Artemidorus believed that dreams can predict the future, he presaged many contemporary approaches to dreams. He thought that the meaning of a dream image could involve puns and could be understood by decoding the image into its component words.
__For example, Alexander The Great , while waging war against the Tyrians, dreamt that a satyr was dancing on his shield. Artemidorus reports that this dream was interpreted as follows: satyr = sa tyros ("Tyre will be thine"), predicting that Alexander would be triumphant. Freud acknowledged this example of Artemidorus when he proposed that dreams be interpreted like a rebus.
__Therefore although Sigmund Freud was the inventor of the analysis of dream symbols and the others neurologists who studied dreams all thought differently about what dreams meant, they all agreed that the meaning relied on the dreamer.
++ But even now, in the jungles of the Amazon live tribes to whom everyday reality is the dream. Hallucinations and dreams are the "real" reality, and the role of dreaming is thus very different from what it is in the West. There is a continuity between dreaming and waking. Dreaming is not just something that goes on during sleep.
Marilyn Schlitz, PhD,worked with the Achuar Indians in the Ecuadorian Amazon."They tell their dreams of what came up the night before........no one dreams for the individual. They dream for the collective. It's only in sharing the content that they get the full picture of what a dream means. And so their dreams are interpreted as a group."
|Marilyn Schlitz, Ph.D. is a social anthropologist, researcher, writer, and charismatic public speaker. |
"Among the Achuar," Schlitz said, "Usually, there's an elder person in the household who does the interpreting. Or if they do a community-based dream sharing, there is a set of elders who do the interpreting. It's a very cool thing, because it moves dreaming out of an individual's inner experience, the way we see it in the West."
"Find access to forces that are not revealed in everyday 'illusory' awareness. They believe that something akin to a soul-body leaves their physical body to travel within a parallel world. The dream journey yields precognitive insights into the future — suggesting strategies for the day's activities."
++ Elizabeth Murray, who also has lived among the Achuar, points out that dreaming in that tribe is sometimes courted or sought. "Every person searches for his Arutum, or guiding vision, which comes from the forest. If a big decision must be made, a person might take one of the visionary plants and go to sleep next to a big tree for three to five days to find an answer."
And in contrast to Western dream interpretation, where drug-induced visions have a category all their own, the source of a dream is of no significance to the Achuar. Whether a vision is drug-induced or occurs during normal sleep, the interpretation is the same.
NOTE: A vision quest is a rite of passage in some Native American cultures. The ceremony of the vision quest is one of the most universal and ancient means to find spiritual guidance and purpose. In practicing cultures, a vision quest is said to provide deep understanding of one's life purpose.
++ Schlitz writes that she is "struck by the degree to which, back home in North America, far from the Amazon rainforest, dreaming is essentially personal. In one way this makes sense. Who among us would sacrifice our fundamental need for individuality?"
"Yet, when taken as an end in itself, the only-personal lacks grounding in a larger whole. In our search for individuation, we have grown disconnected from our deeper selves, our community, our environment, and our sense of the sacred. We struggle to make sense of the subtleties of inner experience in a culture where reality is defined by that which can be physically measured. Could a fundamental source of our current cultural malaise be that we do not dream collectively?".
THE DREAM TIME: AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINal DREAM BELIEFS
++ The Australian native people believed that each person had a part of their nature that was eternal. This eternal being pre-existed the life of the individual, and only became a living person through being born to a mother. The person then lived a life in time, and at death melted back into the eternal life: The "Dream time". __This is a term for the animist framework and symbol system of Australian Aboriginal mythology, introduced by A. P. Elkin in 1938 and popularized by William Edward Hanley Stanner and others from the 1970s for a concept of "time out of time", or "every when", inhabited by ancestral figures, often of heroic proportions or with supernatural abilities, but not considered "gods" as they do not control the material world and are not worshipped.
__For the aboriginal tribes, there is no ending of life at ‘death’. Dead relatives are very much a part of continuing life. It is believed that in dreams dead relatives communicate their presence. At times they may bring healing if the dreamer is in pain. Death is seen as part of a cycle of life in which one emerges from Dreamtime through birth, and eventually returns to the timeless, only to emerge again. It is also a common belief that a person leaves their body during sleep, and temporarily enters the Dreamtime.
__The landscape is almost an externalisation of the individual’s inner world. Each tribe had a traditional area of the land which was theirs alone, and it was believed that in the Dreamtime the ancestors shaped the flat landscape into its present features. So also used as a term for a system of totemistic symbols, so that an indigenous Australian may "own" a specific "Dreaming", such as Kangaroo Dreaming, or Shark Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their country.
NOTE: Australia, there are more than 500 Aboriginal tribes. Undoubtedly each tribe is unique and diverse, with its own distinct culture, just as is the case with American tribes. While many tribes may resemble one another, some will be quite different from others.
__Now the Aboriginal people are depicted as mystical, gentle, wise souls. Native Americans have been systematically slandered, maligned and defamed for over a century by a whole genre of books, movies and television shows known as "The Western". Native Americans have been victims of a far worse distortion of their culture for a very long time.... But nobody is perfect.
__Indeed, this reviewer believes we have much to learn from and benefit by the study of so called "primitive" cultures, such as Australian Aborigines, Native Americans, the peoples of Africa and many other peoples (both contemporary and historic).
++ The historical facts are that we're all connected, and we criss-cross inside of each other. The data suggests that we are not isolated beings, but in fact are in relationship at some core level. We all dream parts of something and this implies that if people took more time to share their dreams, we could begin to understand the future and the nature of our current relationships.
__The idea behind group dream interpretation is that only through looking at all of the dreams can we arrive at a view of the whole.
__Opinions about the meaning of dreams have varied and shifted through time and culture. The earliest recorded dreams were acquired from materials dating back approximately 5000 years, in Mesopotamia, where they were documented on clay tablets. In the Greek and Roman periods, the people believed that dreams were direct messages from one and/or multiple deities, from deceased persons, and that they predicted the future. Some cultures practiced dream incubation with the intention of cultivating dreams that are of prophecy.
__So, everyone has the right to speak his mind looking for an exchange of experiences awaiting a response.
"Amazon Tribes and Collective Dreams" with Marilyn Schlitz, PhD
About Elizabeth Murray
BOOK Descola, Phillipe,Spears of Twilight (The New Press, 1996).
Vision quest http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vision_quest
Native American Dream Beliefs
Australian Aborigine Dream Beliefs / 2Mutant Mensaje Down Under" (reviewed)
Dreamdictionary.Org. Analize your dreams.
Addenda et corrigenda in PINK
Goodbye from Spain
March 5, 2015
They said to him, “We have had dreams, and there is no one to interpret them.” And Joseph said to them, “Do not interpretations belong to God? Please tell them to me.”